The history of Bodrum (also known as Halicarnassus or Halicarnassos) goes back to the 13th century B.C. Carians were the first citizens settled in Bodrum, and Dorian Greeks occupied the harbour area in the 7th century B.C. Then Mausolus, on behalf of the Persians, started ruling over the city from 377 to 353 BC. Artemisia II of Caria took over the ruling after the death of Mausolus. Artemisia II employed two Greek architects and four sculptors to build a monument and a tomb for Mausolus. This temple-like structure, Mausoleum, rested for 1700 years and was finally destroyed by an earthquake.
In 1402 Crusader Knights arrived in the city and built the Bodrum Castle using the remains of the Mausoleum. The castle served as a monopoly for the Knights over centuries, and then in 1522, Suleyman took over the pedestal of Crusader Knights on the Island of Rhodes. The Knights departed to Malta, leaving Bodrum and the Castle to the Ottoman Empire. Today the Castle is one of the finest museums in the city.